Although the Bill still has to go before the full Parliament in September, it is expected to be passed into law.
The amendment establishes a new State regulatory authority, the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority, replacing the Medicines Control Council (MCC). The MCC is currently the national competent authority for the approval of new medicines to be marketed in South Africa.
The controversial aspects of the new law are its granting of ultimate decision-making authority to the Minister, its changes to the appeals process and ultimate authority on marketing decisions.
Under the new section 15 "Certification and registration of products", the Minister can choose to refuse approval of a new drug for marketing, after it has passed clinical trials and has been cleared by the Regulatory Authority. The Minister can refuse to register a product if it is considered contrary to the "public interest" - in this decision the Minister is to take account of:
- public health interests;
- economic interests in relation to health policies;
- strategic interests in relation to health policies;
- the need and desirability for such produch; and
- generally whether the public would be best served by such registration.
The amendment to section 24 and new section 24A establishes a new appeals process which allows opposition on any grounds (not just scientific) to the decision of the Regulatory Authority or the Director-General. But it appears that the amendments do not provide for appeal against the decision of the Minister.The Bill has been strenuously opposed by pharmaceutical companies and patient groups alike. It is described as replacing the role of the regulatory authority with an appeals process and a Ministerial decision. Critics have suggested that this leaves the process vulnerable to abuse, mis-use by competitors and interference from policy positions.
In particular, South Africa's track record on the approval of anti-retrovirals is very worrying if this system goes ahead. At the XVI International AIDS Conference 2006, the UN Special Envoy criticised South Africa's approach to prevention and treatment, and others called for the resignation of the Health Minister, Dr Manto Tshabalala-Msimang. The Health Minister had insisted that the South African display include garlic, lemons and African potatoes (pictured at right). Soon after the international meeting and with ongoing public pressure, South Africa appeared to respond with a change in policy but with the removal last year of more progressive Deputy Health Minister, Nozizwe Madlala-Routledge. AIDS activists called the sacking "a dreadful error of judgment." Earlier this month the Health Minister declined to attend this year's XVII International AIDS Conference in Mexico City.
Dubbed as Dr Beetroot, Dr Garlic and worse, there is a dedicated "SackManto" website and in 2007 scientists wrote a joint letter of protest to President Mbeki. But he has continued to give the Health Minister's position his full support.
Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) former chairman, Zackie Achmat, has stated that the new structure will compromise the independence of the Regulatory Authority and "will leave it vulnerable to political interference." TAC has opposed the Bill and has declared it will take action to prevent the Bill becoming law. Many groups are said to be prepared to take legal action if the Bill is passed into law in September in what is described as one of the most important pieces of health legislation in South Africa in recent years.